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Symbol Of Platinum


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Symbol Of Platinum

Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für in symbol platinum. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Darstellung des Arzneimittels Platinum (metallisches Platin) in leicht verständlicher Form, mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf Anwendungserfahrungen der. Wählen Sie aus "platinum Symbol" Stock-Fotos. Laden Sie 6 Ergebnisse für "​platinum symbol" in „alle“. Platinum Pt chemical element. Platinum Sign with.

Symbol Of Platinum Dateiversionen

Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. File:Platinum-symbol lasf5.nu ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Name, Symbol, Ordnungszahl, Platin, Pt, Elementkategorie · Übergangsmetalle B. Lonmin, Anglo American Platinum oder Impala Platinum. Platinquellen sind auch die. Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für symbol platinum. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Wir haben. Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für in symbol platinum. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Suchen Sie nach Round Periodic Table Element Symbol Platinum-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und. Suchen Sie nach Platinum Symbol-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der.

Symbol Of Platinum

Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für in symbol platinum. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für symbol platinum. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Wir haben. Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. Darstellung des Arzneimittels Platinum (metallisches Platin) in leicht verständlicher Form, mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf Anwendungserfahrungen der. Wählen Sie aus "platinum Symbol" Stock-Fotos. Laden Sie 6 Ergebnisse für "​platinum symbol" in „alle“. Platinum Pt chemical element. Platinum Sign with. Platinum Group Metals Ltd. (WKN: A2PAHQ | ISIN: CAQ | Symbol: lasf5.nu), ein Bergbauunternehmen mit Sitz in Kanada, exploriert bzw. fördert. Symbol Of Platinum Symbol Of Platinum Union Gegen Dresden Angewandte Chemie. Platinum Group Metals beendet Privatplatzierung Geben Sie die Zeichen aus dem Bild ein. Bandulet, Bruno Dr. Wenn nicht anders vermerkt, gelten Heroes Review angegebenen Daten bei Standardbedingungen. Es fand sich beim Bonus Code Casino Del Rio von Goldstaub im Waschgold als Begleitung und Corazones Online nicht explizit Vidnow werden. Periodensystem der Elemente. Sie erwog sogar, sämtliches bis dahin erhaltenes Platin im Meer zu versenken, um Platinschmuggel und Fälscherei zuvorzukommen und davor abzuschrecken. Das Metall in kompakter Form ist nicht brennbar.

Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is the least reactive metal. As a member of the platinum group of elements, as well as of the group 10 of the periodic table of elements, platinum is generally non-reactive.

It exhibits a remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and as such is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum.

Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.

It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it became investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Because only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, and is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.

Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance, it is not as toxic as some metals.

Compounds containing platinum, most notably cisplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.

Graphical characteristics: Symmetric , Closed shape , Monochrome , Contains both straight and curved lines , Has no crossing lines.

Category: Alchemical Symbols. Platinum is part of the Mundane Elements group. Edit this symbol. Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

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Forgot your password? Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties.

Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals.

Neodymium is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use.

Although neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element. Promethium is one of only two such elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms.

All of its isotopes are radioactive. In nuclear reactors, promethium equilibrium exists in power operation. Samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, it is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air.

The name samarium is after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated. In nuclear industry, especially natural and artificial samarium has an important impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor.

Europium is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe.

Gadolinium belongs to a rare earth elements it is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table. In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes Gd and Gd.

In fact their absorption cross-sections are the highest among all stable isotopes. Terbium is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife.

The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas.

Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications.

Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal.

Erbium is a silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements.

It is a lanthanide, a rare earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden. Thulium is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster.

It is fairly soft and slowly tarnishes in air. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices.

Thulium is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths.

Actinium is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table.

Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Thorium is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point.

Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium.

Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral. Protactinium is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids.

Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between , years and 4.

Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air.

Neptunium is the first transuranic element. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized.

Americium is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.

Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye after einsteinium.

The most commonly used spontaneous fission neutron source is the radioactive isotope californium Fermium is a member of the actinide series.

It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities.

Mendelevium is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities.

Nobelium is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.

Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.

In a neutral atom there are as many electrons as protons moving about nucleus. It is the electrons that are responsible for the chemical bavavior of atoms, and which identify the various chemical elements.

See also: Atomic Number — Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction? Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms.

The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Platinum are , , , Neutron number is rarely written explicitly in nuclide symbol notation, but appears as a subscript to the right of the element symbol.

Nuclides that have the same neutron number but a different proton number are called isotones. Each nuclide is denoted by chemical symbol of the element this specifies Z with tha atomic mass number as supescript.

Therefore, we cannot determine the neutron number of uranium, for example. We can determine the neutron number of certain isotope.

For example, actinides with odd neutron number are usually fissile fissionable with slow neutrons while actinides with even neutron number are usually not fissile but are fissionable with fast neutrons.

On the other hand, nuclei with an odd number of protons and neutrons are mostly unstable. Also to help understand this concept there is a chart of the nuclides, known as a Segre chart.

This chart shows a plot of the known nuclides as a function of their atomic and neutron numbers. The excess neutrons act somewhat like nuclear glue.

Only two stable nuclides have fewer neutrons than protons: hydrogen-1 and helium These two forces compete, leading to various stability of nuclei.

Neutrons stabilize the nucleus , because they attract each other and protons , which helps offset the electrical repulsion between protons.

Many other rare types of decay, such as spontaneous fission or neutron emission are known. The atomic mass is the mass of an atom.

The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element.

Note that, each element may contain more isotopes , therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

The size and mass of atoms are so small that the use of normal measuring units, while possible, is often inconvenient.

Units of measure have been defined for mass and energy on the atomic scale to make measurements more convenient to express. The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit amu.

One atomic mass unit is equal to 1. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.

Mass was no longer considered unchangeable in the closed system. See also: Atomic Mass Number — Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction?

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus.

However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space.

Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius. On the periodic table of the elements, atomic radius tends to increase when moving down columns, but decrease when moving across rows left to right.

Consequently, the smallest atom is helium with a radius of 32 pm, while one of the largest is caesium at pm. The atomic radii decrease across the periodic table because as the atomic number increases, the number of protons increases across the period, but the extra electrons are only added to the same quantum shell.

Therefore, the effective nuclear charge towards the outermost electrons increases, drawing the outermost electrons closer. As a result, the electron cloud contracts and the atomic radius decreases.

The Van der Waals radius, r w , of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom.

These electrons together weigh only a fraction let say 0. The classical description cannot be used to describe things on the atomic scale.

On the atomic scale, physicists have found that quantum mechanics describes things very well on that scale. It is a synthetic element first synthesised at Hasse in Germany and radioactive.

It has an estimated density of The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. This variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases.

Most materials expand when their temperatures increase. Rising temperatures make the liquid expand in a liquid-in-tube thermometer and bend bimetallic strips.

As a result of this expansion, the density of most materials decreases. This effect is caused by a decrease in the atomic number density.

This dependence is usually expressed by the coefficient of linear or volume expansion. Increasing the pressure on an material especially for liquids or gases decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density via the atomic number density.

Compressibility also known as the coefficient of compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure or mean stress change.

The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties.

The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule or other physical structure in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements.

It could be part of the main body, but then the periodic table would be rather long and cumbersome. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.

The electron configuration can be visualized as the core electrons, equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, and the valence electrons e.

Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative.

Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state. An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0.

Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements — it is simply the element in its elemental form. An atom of an element in a compound will have a positive oxidation state if it has had electrons removed.

Similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation state. We have also distinguish between the possible and common oxidation states of every element.

Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.

An atom of Platinum in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Platinum.

To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is released.

This affinity is known as the first electron affinity and these energies are negative. By convention, the negative sign shows a release of energy.

However, more energy is required to add an electron to a negative ion which overwhelms any the release of energy from the electron attachment process.

This affinity is known as the second electron affinity and these energies are positive. Electron affinity can be either positive or negative value.

The greater the negative value, the more stable the anion is. Although affinity varies greatly across the periodic table, some patterns emerge.

Generally, the elements on the right side of the periodic table will have large negative electron affinity. The electron affinities will become less negative as you go from the top to the bottom of the periodic table.

However, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine do not follow this trend. Moreover, nonmetals have more positive affinity than metals.

Atoms whose anions are more stable than neutral atoms have a greater affinity. Chlorine most strongly attracts extra electrons, while neon most weakly attracts an extra electron.

The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it. The most electronegative atom, fluorine, is assigned a value of 4.

Electronegativity is related with ionization energy and electron affinity. Electrons with low ionization energies have low electronegativities because their nuclei do not exert a strong attractive force on electrons.

Elements with high ionization energies have high electronegativities due to the strong pull exerted by the positive nucleus on the negative electrons.

Therefore the electronegativity is greatest at the top-right of the periodic table and decreases toward the bottom-left. A Platinum atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

The ionization energy associated with removal of the first electron is most commonly used. There is an ionization energy for each successive electron removed.

The electrons that circle the nucleus move in fairly well-defined orbits. Some of these electrons are more tightly bound in the atom than others.

For example, only 7. Helps to understand reactivity of elements especially metals, which lose electrons.

In general, the ionization energy increases moving up a group and moving left to right across a period. Ionization energy is is related with electronegativity and electron affinity.

In general, boiling is a phase change of a substance from the liquid to the gas phase. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change boiling or vaporization occurs.

The temperature at which vaporization boiling starts to occur for a given pressure is also known as the saturation temperature and at this conditions a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist together.

The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. At the boiling point the two phases of a substance, liquid and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are equally likely to exist.

Below the boiling point, the liquid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the gaseous form is preferred. The pressure at which vaporization boiling starts to occur for a given temperature is called the saturation pressure.

When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from vapor to liquid, it is referred to as the condensation point. As can be seen, the boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure.

A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure.

In the periodic table of elements , the element with the lowest boiling point is helium. Both the boiling points of rhenium and tungsten exceed K at standard pressure.

Since it is difficult to measure extreme temperatures precisely without bias, both have been cited in the literature as having the higher boiling point.

In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs.

The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. Adding a heat will convert the solid into a liquid with no temperature change.

At the melting point the two phases of a substance, liquid and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are equally likely to exist.

Below the melting point, the solid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the liquid form is preferred. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure.

When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point.

See also: Melting Point Depression. The first theory explaining mechanism of melting in the bulk was proposed by Lindemann, who used vibration of atoms in the crystal to explain the melting transition.

Solids are similar to liquids in that both are condensed states, with particles that are far closer together than those of a gas.

The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice or irregularly an amorphous solid such as common window glass , and are typically low in energy.

The motion of individual atoms , ions, or molecules in a solid is restricted to vibrational motion about a fixed point.

As a solid is heated, its particles vibrate more rapidly as the solid absorbs kinetic energy. At some point the amplitude of vibration becomes so large that the atoms start to invade the space of their nearest neighbors and disturb them and the melting process initiates.

The melting point is the temperature at which the disruptive vibrations of the particles of the solid overcome the attractive forces operating within the solid.

As with boiling points, the melting point of a solid is dependent on the strength of those attractive forces. On the other hand, ice solid H 2 O is a molecular compound whose molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds, which is effectively a strong example of an interaction between two permanent dipoles.

Though hydrogen bonds are the strongest of the intermolecular forces, the strength of hydrogen bonds is much less than that of ionic bonds.

Covalent bonds often result in the formation of small collections of better-connected atoms called molecules, which in solids and liquids are bound to other molecules by forces that are often much weaker than the covalent bonds that hold the molecules internally together.

Such weak intermolecular bonds give organic molecular substances, such as waxes and oils, their soft bulk character, and their low melting points in liquids, molecules must cease most structured or oriented contact with each other.

The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature. For vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:.

When electrons and phonons carry thermal energy leading to conduction heat transfer in a solid, the thermal conductivity may be expressed as:. Accordingly, transport of thermal energy may be due to two effects:.

In fact, in pure metals such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, the heat current associated with the flow of electrons by far exceeds a small contribution due to the flow of phonons.

In contrast, for alloys, the contribution of k ph to k is no longer negligible. In fact, lattice thermal conduction is the dominant thermal conduction mechanism in nonmetals, if not the only one.

In solids, atoms vibrate about their equilibrium positions crystal lattice. The vibrations of atoms are not independent of each other, but are rather strongly coupled with neighboring atoms.

Phonons play a major role in many of the physical properties of condensed matter, like thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. K of any bulk material.

In liquids, the thermal conduction is caused by atomic or molecular diffusion. In gases, the thermal conduction is caused by diffusion of molecules from higher energy level to the lower level.

Air and other gases are generally good insulators, in the absence of convection. Therefore, many insulating materials e.

Alternation of gas pocket and solid material causes that the heat must be transferred through many interfaces causing rapid decrease in heat transfer coefficient.

The mean free path also depends on the diameter of the molecule, with larger molecules more likely to experience collisions than small molecules, which is the average distance traveled by an energy carrier a molecule before experiencing a collision.

Dense gases such as xenon and dichlorodifluoromethane have low thermal conductivity. As was written, in liquids, the thermal conduction is caused by atomic or molecular diffusion, but physical mechanisms for explaining the thermal conductivity of liquids are not well understood.

Liquids tend to have better thermal conductivity than gases, and the ability to flow makes a liquid suitable for removing excess heat from mechanical components.

The heat can be removed by channeling the liquid through a heat exchanger. The coolants used in nuclear reactors include water or liquid metals, such as sodium or lead.

Linear thermal expansion coefficient of Platinum is 8. Thermal expansion is generally the tendency of matter to change its dimensions in response to a change in temperature.

It is usually expressed as a fractional change in length or volume per unit temperature change. Thermal expansion is common for solids, liquids and for gases.

Symbol Of Platinum Symbol Of Platinum

Symbol Of Platinum What is Platinum? Video

Platinum group metals demand to soar in face of biggest dilemma in history Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Platin Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. William Faber, Marc Dr. In Salz- und in Salpetersäure alleine ist es jeweils unlöslich. In der veralteten, aber noch gebräuchlichen 8. Beste Möglichkeit ist das flammenfreie elektrisch-induktive Heizen des Schmelzgutes in Zirkonoxidkeramiken. Platin wurde auch von den Book Of Ra Insider Sms Trick Südamerikas benutzt. In general, substances expand Merkur Spielothek Koblenz contract when their temperature changes, with expansion or contraction occurring in all Jack Hand. Only two stable nuclides Radwanska Schwestern fewer neutrons than protons: hydrogen-1 and helium Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal4 which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. We truly appreciate your support. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient, and the most relevant for fluids. Es besitzt daher bemerkenswerte katalytische Eigenschaften; Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff reagieren in seiner Anwesenheit explosiv miteinander zu Wasser. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Juni Aktiengattung: Euromillions Frankreich Zahlen. Diese Datei und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. Free Texas Hold keine P-Sätze [12]. Bisher sind rund 50 Platinminerale bekannt Stand: Platinum Group Metals beendet Privatplatzierung

Symbol Of Platinum What is Platinum Video

Platinum - Periodic Table of Videos

Symbol Of Platinum Dateiverwendung

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In nuclear industry, especially natural and artificial samarium has an important impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor. Europium is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water.

Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe. Gadolinium belongs to a rare earth elements it is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table.

In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes Gd and Gd.

In fact their absorption cross-sections are the highest among all stable isotopes. Terbium is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife.

The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications.

Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal.

Erbium is a silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements.

It is a lanthanide, a rare earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden. Thulium is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster.

It is fairly soft and slowly tarnishes in air. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices.

Thulium is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths.

Actinium is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table.

Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Thorium is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point.

Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral.

Protactinium is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids.

Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between , years and 4.

Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air.

Neptunium is the first transuranic element. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized.

Americium is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.

Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide.

Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye after einsteinium.

The most commonly used spontaneous fission neutron source is the radioactive isotope californium Fermium is a member of the actinide series.

It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities.

Mendelevium is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities.

Nobelium is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.

Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.

In a neutral atom there are as many electrons as protons moving about nucleus. It is the electrons that are responsible for the chemical bavavior of atoms, and which identify the various chemical elements.

See also: Atomic Number — Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction? Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms.

The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z.

This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Platinum are , , , Neutron number is rarely written explicitly in nuclide symbol notation, but appears as a subscript to the right of the element symbol.

Nuclides that have the same neutron number but a different proton number are called isotones. Each nuclide is denoted by chemical symbol of the element this specifies Z with tha atomic mass number as supescript.

Therefore, we cannot determine the neutron number of uranium, for example. We can determine the neutron number of certain isotope.

For example, actinides with odd neutron number are usually fissile fissionable with slow neutrons while actinides with even neutron number are usually not fissile but are fissionable with fast neutrons.

On the other hand, nuclei with an odd number of protons and neutrons are mostly unstable. Also to help understand this concept there is a chart of the nuclides, known as a Segre chart.

This chart shows a plot of the known nuclides as a function of their atomic and neutron numbers.

The excess neutrons act somewhat like nuclear glue. Only two stable nuclides have fewer neutrons than protons: hydrogen-1 and helium These two forces compete, leading to various stability of nuclei.

Neutrons stabilize the nucleus , because they attract each other and protons , which helps offset the electrical repulsion between protons.

Many other rare types of decay, such as spontaneous fission or neutron emission are known. The atomic mass is the mass of an atom.

The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass refers to the mass of a single particle, and therefore is tied to a certain specific isotope of an element.

Note that, each element may contain more isotopes , therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance.

The size and mass of atoms are so small that the use of normal measuring units, while possible, is often inconvenient. Units of measure have been defined for mass and energy on the atomic scale to make measurements more convenient to express.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit amu. One atomic mass unit is equal to 1. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.

Mass was no longer considered unchangeable in the closed system. See also: Atomic Mass Number — Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction?

It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus.

However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. Therefore, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.

On the periodic table of the elements, atomic radius tends to increase when moving down columns, but decrease when moving across rows left to right.

Consequently, the smallest atom is helium with a radius of 32 pm, while one of the largest is caesium at pm. The atomic radii decrease across the periodic table because as the atomic number increases, the number of protons increases across the period, but the extra electrons are only added to the same quantum shell.

Therefore, the effective nuclear charge towards the outermost electrons increases, drawing the outermost electrons closer.

As a result, the electron cloud contracts and the atomic radius decreases. The Van der Waals radius, r w , of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom.

These electrons together weigh only a fraction let say 0. The classical description cannot be used to describe things on the atomic scale. On the atomic scale, physicists have found that quantum mechanics describes things very well on that scale.

It is a synthetic element first synthesised at Hasse in Germany and radioactive. It has an estimated density of The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure.

This variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Most materials expand when their temperatures increase. Rising temperatures make the liquid expand in a liquid-in-tube thermometer and bend bimetallic strips.

As a result of this expansion, the density of most materials decreases. This effect is caused by a decrease in the atomic number density.

This dependence is usually expressed by the coefficient of linear or volume expansion. Increasing the pressure on an material especially for liquids or gases decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density via the atomic number density.

Compressibility also known as the coefficient of compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure or mean stress change.

The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties.

The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule or other physical structure in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. It could be part of the main body, but then the periodic table would be rather long and cumbersome.

For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.

The electron configuration can be visualized as the core electrons, equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, and the valence electrons e.

Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state.

An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0. Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements — it is simply the element in its elemental form.

An atom of an element in a compound will have a positive oxidation state if it has had electrons removed. Similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation state.

We have also distinguish between the possible and common oxidation states of every element. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons.

Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies. An atom of Platinum in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Platinum.

To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is released.

This affinity is known as the first electron affinity and these energies are negative. By convention, the negative sign shows a release of energy.

However, more energy is required to add an electron to a negative ion which overwhelms any the release of energy from the electron attachment process.

This affinity is known as the second electron affinity and these energies are positive. Electron affinity can be either positive or negative value.

The greater the negative value, the more stable the anion is. Although affinity varies greatly across the periodic table, some patterns emerge.

Generally, the elements on the right side of the periodic table will have large negative electron affinity. The electron affinities will become less negative as you go from the top to the bottom of the periodic table.

However, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine do not follow this trend. Moreover, nonmetals have more positive affinity than metals.

Atoms whose anions are more stable than neutral atoms have a greater affinity. Chlorine most strongly attracts extra electrons, while neon most weakly attracts an extra electron.

The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it.

The most electronegative atom, fluorine, is assigned a value of 4. Electronegativity is related with ionization energy and electron affinity.

Electrons with low ionization energies have low electronegativities because their nuclei do not exert a strong attractive force on electrons.

Elements with high ionization energies have high electronegativities due to the strong pull exerted by the positive nucleus on the negative electrons.

Therefore the electronegativity is greatest at the top-right of the periodic table and decreases toward the bottom-left. A Platinum atom, for example, requires the following ionization energy to remove the outermost electron.

The ionization energy associated with removal of the first electron is most commonly used. There is an ionization energy for each successive electron removed.

The electrons that circle the nucleus move in fairly well-defined orbits. Some of these electrons are more tightly bound in the atom than others.

For example, only 7. Helps to understand reactivity of elements especially metals, which lose electrons.

In general, the ionization energy increases moving up a group and moving left to right across a period.

Ionization energy is is related with electronegativity and electron affinity. It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.

Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum e.

The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [74] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.

It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group. Main article: Isotopes of platinum.

Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin. See also: Platinum album and Platinum color. Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.

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Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 11 June Ruhul; Razzaque, Mohammed S. Cisplatin-Associated Nephrotoxicity and Pathological Events.

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Forgot your password? Retrieve it. Rate this symbol: 3. The alchemical symbol for platinum was made by joining the symbols of silver and gold.

More symbols in Mundane Elements :. More symbols in Alchemical Symbols : Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

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